What is Nuclear Reactor?
A nuclear reactor delivers and controls the arrival of vitality from parting the molecules of uranium. Uranium-fuelled nuclear power is a perfect and effective method for bubbling water to make steam which drives turbine generators. With the exception of the reactor itself, a nuclear power station works like most coal or gas-terminated power stations.
There are a wide range of sorts of nuclear fuel structures and cooling materials can be utilized in a nuclear reactor. Thus, there are a huge number of various conceivable nuclear reactor structures. Here, we talk about a couple of the structures that have been worked previously, however don’t confine your creative mind; numerous other reactor plans are conceivable.
How does Nuclear Reactor work?
In nuclear power plants, neutrons slam into uranium iotas, parting them. This split discharges neutrons from the uranium that thus crash into different molecules, causing a chain response. This chain response is controlled with “control bars” that retain neutrons.
In the center of nuclear reactors, the splitting of uranium iotas discharges vitality that warms water to around 520 degrees Farenheit. This high temp water is then used to turn turbines that are associated with generators, creating power.
Types of Nuclear Reactors:-
Pressurised Water Reactors (PWRs) – 60% PWR is the most common type of nuclear reactor, representing about 60% of all nuclear power reactors in the world. PWRs are adopted in countries such as the United States, France, Japan, Russia and China. PWRs use light water (ordinary water) for neutron moderation* and reactor heat removal.
The water inside the primary cooling circuit of PWR is under high pressure, and it will not turn into steam even under high temperature. The primary circuit and the secondary circuit are completely separated, and heat energy will be transferred from the primary circuit to the secondary circuit. With a lower pressure in the secondary circuit, steam is raised to drive a turbine-generator to produce electricity.
These reactors use U235 of a typically 3%-4.5% enrichment. PWR’s two cooling systems separate the reactor cooling water and steam for power generation. In the event of necessary venting, steam released will be free from radioactive products. *Moderation slows down the speed of the neutrons so that fission may take place with U235 at a low enrichment.
Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs) – 20% BWRs use U235 of a typically 2%–4% enrichment and account for around 20% of all nuclear power reactors. BWRs are adopted in countries such as the United States, Japan and Sweden. BWRs use light water for neutron moderation and reactor heat removal.
The heat raises steam directly in their reactor pressure vessel to drive a turbine-generator to produce electricity. BWR’s basic design is similar to that of PWR, except that it uses only one single circuit in which the water is at lower pressure. As the water around the core of the reactor always contains some traces of radionuclides, should necessary venting occur, any steam released could contain radioactive products.
Pressurised Heavy Water Reactors (PHWRs) – 10% Usually referred as CANDU, PHWR was developed in the 1950s and is widely used in countries such as Canada and India. PHWR represents about 10% of all nuclear power reactors in the world. This type of reactor uses Uranium at its natural level of around 0.7% U235 concentration with no enrichment. It uses heavy water* for neutron moderation and reactor heat removal.
Heavy water absorbs the fewest neutrons among common moderator material so that it will least suppress the chain reaction. This heavy water flows inside pressure tubes filled with Uranium, taking away reactor heat and delivering it to an adjoining circuit to raise steam and drive a turbine-generator for production of electricity. PWHR’s pressurised tube design enables refueling of the reactor during operation, by isolating individual pressure tubes from the cooling circuit. *Heavy water refers to water in which the ordinary hydrogen atoms (containing only 1 proton in the nucleus) are replaced by heavier hydrogen atoms (containing 1 proton and 1 neutron in the nucleus), which can help achieve a more efficient fission process.