Types of Inventory and Quality Standards

There are following types of inventory:

1. Raw Inventory

It includes all such items which are supplied by some other firm in the form of raw material, for the concern to which these are supplied. These raw materials are used in the finished product in some form or the other.

2. Process Inventory

These are used in process of manufacture and as such these are neither raw material nor finished goods.

3. Finished Inventory

These are finished goods and ready to be taken in store and stock for sale purpose.

There are six important standards used as a tool to control inventory:

1. Standard order

It means quantity to be purchased at any time. It is the difference between maximum and minimum quantity.

2. Lead or procurement time

It is a time which is calculated by a firm on the basis of past experience. It is the time that lapses between preparing of invoices for the placement of orders and the time taken for the supply of materials.

3. Maximum store

It is upper limit of the inventory and is the largest quantity which should be kept in stores taking interests of the company into consideration.

4. Minimum stores

It indicates lower limit of the inventory, the safety margin can be used in case of emergency. This quantity also includes abnormal requirements of the firm.

5. Stock holding

It means holding of stock so that inventory does not go out of stock. It is also means a buffer stock which can be utilized when material falls even below the minimum level. It takes care of shortage of inventory in the market and helps in reducing the variety of items to be handled. It also helps in deciding quick materials at the time of need and necessity.

6. Ordering point

It means a point which indicates time to initiate a purchase order. It is the quantity of material required between the exhaustion of available stocks and the supply during the interval between placement of an order and delivery of materials.