Production planning definition:
In production, products are manufactured by the transformation of raw material (into finished goods). Planning looks ahead, anticipates possible difficulties and decides in advance as to how the production, best, be carried out. Control phase makes sure that the programmed production is constantly maintained.
Functions of production planning:A production planning and control system has following functions to perform, some before the arrival of raw materials and tools, and others while the raw material undergoes processing.
(1) Planning phase
A. Prior planning :
- Forecasting: Estimation of type, quantity and quality of future work.
- Product design: Collection of information regarding specifications, bill of materials, drawings, etc.
- Process planning and routing: Finding the most economical process for doing a work and (then) deciding how and where the work will be done.
- Material control: Determination of the requirements and control of materials.
- Control: Determination of the requirements and control of tools used.
- Loading: Assignment of work to manpower, machinery, etc.
- Scheduling: lt is the time phase of loading and determines when and in what sequence the work will be carried out. It fixes the starting as well as the finishing time for the job.
(2) Action phaseDispatching: It is the transition from planning to action phase. In this phase the worker is ordered to start the actual work.
(3) Control phase(i) Progress reporting.
- Data regarding the job progress is collected.
- It is interpreted by comparison with the preset level of performance.
- Expediting: It means taking action if the progress reporting (j) indicates a deviation of the plan from the originally set targets.
- Replanning: Replanning of the whole affair becomes essential, in case expediting fails to bring the deviated plan to its actual (right) path.
Types of Production System
Continuous Production SystemIt involves a continuous or almost continuous physical flow of material. It makes use of special purpose machines, and produces standardized items in large quantities e.g. chemical processing, cigarette manufacturing, and cement manufacturing
Classification of Continuous Production System
- Mass and flow line production
- Continuous or process production.
Intermittent Production SystemIt is specified by the intermittent or interrupted flow of material through the plant. It makes use of general purpose machines and produces components different in nature and in small quantities. e.g. machine shops, repair and maintenance shops, welding shops, etc.
Classification of Intermittent Production System
- Batch production
- Job production.